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الاخطاء الشائعة في كتابة خطة البحث Proposal

استعرض الموضوع السابق استعرض الموضوع التالي اذهب الى الأسفل

الاخطاء الشائعة في كتابة خطة البحث Proposal

مُساهمة من طرف أخصائية تغذية في الإثنين 23 أغسطس 2010, 3:21 pm

فشل المحتوى في تشكيل وصياغة شؤال البحث او أسئلة البحث
فشل المحتوى في تحديد حدود بحثك بالضبط
فشل المحتوى في الاستشهاد بالدراسات البارزة ( السابقة) في موضوع البحث
الفشل في التقديم الدقيق للمساهمات النظرية والعمليةللدراسات السابقة
الفشل في التركيز على سؤال / اسئلة البحث
عدم القدرة على تطوير النقاش بشكل متماسك ومقنع
الاسهاب في ذكر التفاصيل الصغيرة والجانبية في مقابل قصور واضح في بيانات القضايا الرئيسة.
التجول المفرط بين كثير من القضايا وفي جوانب عدة من غير وضوح في الاهداف التي يتجه بها الباحث والبحث
كثرة الاستشهادات الخاطئة والضبط الغير صحيح للمراجع
الفشل في استخدام الاسلوب والصياغة العلمية للكتابة العلمية/ الاكاديمية


Postgraduate Study: preparing a research proposal

If you are proposing to apply to do postgraduate you are strongly advised first to
consult someone with relevant interests in the department.
The research proposal
Before you write your research proposal, you have to choose your research topic.
It is important that you consider the following questions: is the topic of interest to you and will it motivate you? is it worthwhile? is it feasible? is it original?

For an application you will be asked to write a research proposal covering the
following areas:
1. title
we need a brief title. It should be concise and descriptive. For example, the
phrase, "An investigation of . . ." could be omitted. Often titles are stated in
terms of a functional relationship, because such titles clearly indicate the
independent and dependent variables. However, if possible, think of an
informative but catchy title. An effective title not only pricks the reader's
interest, but also predisposes him/her favourably towards the proposal.

2. Abstract
It is a brief summary of approximately 300 words. It should include the
research question, the rationale for the study, the hypothesis (if any), the
method and the main findings. Descriptions of the method may include the
design, procedures, the sample and any instruments that will be used.
3. Introduction:
The main purpose of the introduction is to provide the necessary background or
context for your research problem. How to frame the research problem is perhaps
the biggest problem in proposal writing.
If the research problem is framed in the context of a general, rambling literature
review, then the research question may appear trivial and uninteresting.
However, if the same question is placed in the context of a very focused and
current research area, its significance will become evident.
Unfortunately, there are no hard and fast rules on how to frame your research
question just as there is no prescription on how to write an interesting and
informative opening paragraph. A lot depends on your creativity, your ability to
think clearly and the depth of your understanding of problem areas.
However, try to place your research question in the context of either a current
"hot" area, or an older area that remains viable. Secondly, you need to provide a
brief but appropriate historical backdrop. Thirdly, provide the contemporary
context in which your proposed research question occupies the central stage.
Finally, identify "key players" and refer to the most relevant and representative
publications. In short, try to paint your research question in broad brushes and at
the same time bring out its significance.
The introduction typically begins with a general statement of the problem area,
with a focus on a specific research problem, to be followed by the rational or
justification for the proposed study. The introduction generally covers the
following elements:
1. State the research problem, which is often referred to as the purpose of
the study.
2. Provide the context and set the stage for your research question in such a
way as to show its necessity and importance.
3. Present the rationale of your proposed study and clearly indicate why it is
worth doing.
4. Briefly describe the major issues and sub-problems to be addressed by
your research.
5. Identify the key independent and dependent variables of your experiment.
Alternatively, specify the phenomenon you want to study.
6. State your hypothesis or theory, if any. For exploratory or
phenomenological research, you may not have any hypotheses. (Please do
not confuse the hypothesis with the statistical null hypothesis.)
7. Set the delimitation or boundaries of your proposed research in order to
provide a clear focus.
8. Provide definitions of key concepts. (This is optional.)
4. Literature Review
Sometimes the literature review is incorporated into the introduction section.
However, most professors prefer a separate section, which allows a more
thorough review of the literature.
The literature review serves several important functions:
1. Ensures that you are not "reinventing the wheel".
2. Gives credits to those who have laid the groundwork for your research.
3. Demonstrates your knowledge of the research problem.
4. Demonstrates your understanding of the theoretical and research issues
related to your research question.
5. Shows your ability to critically evaluate relevant literature information.
6. Indicates your ability to integrate and synthesize the existing literature.
7. Provides new theoretical insights or develops a new model as the
conceptual framework for your research.
8. Convinces your reader that your proposed research will make a significant
and substantial contribution to the literature (i.e., resolving an important
theoretical issue or filling a major gap in the literature).
Most students' literature reviews suffer from the following problems: Lacking organization and structure Lacking focus, unity and coherence Being repetitive and verbose Failing to cite influential papers Failing to keep up with recent developments
Failing to critically evaluate cited papers Citing irrelevant or trivial references Depending too much on secondary sources
Your scholarship and research competence will be questioned if any of the above
applies to your proposal.
There are different ways to organize your literature review. Make use of
subheadings to bring order and coherence to your review. For example, having
established the importance of your research area and its current state of
development, you may devote several subsections on related issues as:
theoretical models, measuring instruments, cross-cultural and gender differences,
etc.
It is also helpful to keep in mind that you are telling a story to an audience. Try
to tell it in a stimulating and engaging manner. Do not bore them, because it may
lead to rejection of your worthy proposal. (Remember: Professors and scientists
are human beings too.)
5. Methods:
The Method section is very important because it tells your Research Committee
how you plan to tackle your research problem. It will provide your work plan and
describe the activities necessary for the completion of your project.
The guiding principle for writing the Method section is that it should contain
sufficient information for the reader to determine whether methodology is sound.
Some even argue that a good proposal should contain sufficient details for
another qualified researcher to implement the study.
You need to demonstrate your knowledge of alternative methods and make the
case that your approach is the most appropriate and most valid way to address
your research question.
Please note that your research question may be best answered by qualitative
research. However, since most mainstream psychologists are still biased against
qualitative research, especially the phenomenological variety, you may need to
justify your qualitative method.
Furthermore, since there are no well-established and widely accepted canons in
qualitative analysis, your method section needs to be more elaborate than what is
required for traditional quantitative research. More importantly, the data
collection process in qualitative research has a far greater impact on the results
as compared to quantitative research. That is another reason for greater care in
describing how you will collect and analyze your data. (How to write the Method
section for qualitative research is a topic for another paper.)
For quantitative studies, the method section typically consists of the following
sections:
1. Design -Is it a questionnaire study or a laboratory experiment? What kind
of design do you choose?
2. Subjects or participants - Who will take part in your study ? What kind of
sampling procedure do you use?
3. Instruments - What kind of measuring instruments or questionnaires do
you use? Why do you choose them? Are they valid and reliable?
4. Procedure - How do you plan to carry out your study? What activities are
involved? How long does it take?
6. Results:
Obviously you do not have results at the proposal stage. However, you need to
have some idea about what kind of data you will be collecting, and what
statistical procedures will be used in order to answer your research question or
test you hypothesis.
7. Discussion:
It is important to convince your reader of the potential impact of your proposed
research. You need to communicate a sense of enthusiasm and confidence
without exaggerating the merits of your proposal. That is why you also need to
mention the limitations and weaknesses of the proposed research, which may be
justified by time and financial constraints as well as by the early developmental
stage of your research area.
ولكم جميعا كل الود وأطيب المنى....



_______________________________


أخصائية تغذية
موفد مميز
موفد مميز

انثى عدد المساهمات : 503
نقاط : 13565
نقاط السٌّمعَة : 867
تاريخ التسجيل : 28/02/2010

الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل

رد: الاخطاء الشائعة في كتابة خطة البحث Proposal

مُساهمة من طرف امة الله في الإثنين 23 أغسطس 2010, 4:35 pm

I wish sister you put this valuable subject in the languages montda to benefit all students not only the ones in Australia


Many thanks

_______________________________


امة الله
موفد رائع
موفد رائع

عضو إدارة

مشرفة المنتدى الإسـلامـي
قسم ليبيا كما نريد
منتدى فرنسا


الأوسمة:
  • وسام الإدارة


انثى عدد المساهمات : 1344
نقاط : 17375
نقاط السٌّمعَة : 543
تاريخ التسجيل : 07/04/2010

الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل

رد: الاخطاء الشائعة في كتابة خطة البحث Proposal

مُساهمة من طرف amara1176 في السبت 07 ديسمبر 2013, 12:16 pm

@أخصائية تغذية كتب:فشل المحتوى في تشكيل وصياغة شؤال البحث او أسئلة البحث
فشل المحتوى في تحديد حدود بحثك بالضبط
فشل المحتوى في الاستشهاد بالدراسات البارزة ( السابقة) في موضوع البحث
الفشل في التقديم الدقيق للمساهمات النظرية والعمليةللدراسات السابقة
الفشل في التركيز على سؤال / اسئلة البحث
عدم القدرة على تطوير النقاش بشكل متماسك ومقنع
الاسهاب في ذكر التفاصيل الصغيرة والجانبية في مقابل قصور واضح في بيانات القضايا الرئيسة.
التجول المفرط بين كثير من القضايا وفي جوانب عدة من غير وضوح في الاهداف التي يتجه بها الباحث والبحث
كثرة الاستشهادات الخاطئة والضبط الغير صحيح للمراجع
الفشل في استخدام الاسلوب والصياغة العلمية للكتابة العلمية/ الاكاديمية


Postgraduate Study: preparing a research proposal

If you are proposing to apply to do postgraduate you are strongly advised first to
consult someone with relevant interests in the department.  
The research proposal
Before you write your research proposal, you have to choose your research topic.  
It is important that you consider the following questions:          is the topic of interest to you and will it motivate you?           is it worthwhile?           is it feasible?           is it original?

For an application you will be asked to write a research proposal covering the
following areas:
1. title
we need a brief title. It should be concise and descriptive. For example, the
phrase, "An investigation of . . ." could be omitted. Often titles are stated in
terms of a functional relationship, because such titles clearly indicate the
independent and dependent variables. However, if possible, think of an
informative but catchy title. An effective title not only pricks the reader's
interest, but also predisposes him/her favourably towards the proposal.  

2. Abstract
It is a brief summary of approximately 300 words. It should include the
research question, the rationale for the study, the hypothesis (if any), the
method and the main findings. Descriptions of the method may include the
design, procedures, the sample and any instruments that will be used.
  3. Introduction:
The main purpose of the introduction is to provide the necessary background or
context for your research problem. How to frame the research problem is perhaps
the biggest problem in proposal writing.  
If the research problem is framed in the context of a general, rambling literature
review, then the research question may appear trivial and uninteresting.
However, if the same question is placed in the context of a very focused and
current research area, its significance will become evident.  
Unfortunately, there are no hard and fast rules on how to frame your research
question just as there is no prescription on how to write an interesting and
informative opening paragraph. A lot depends on your creativity, your ability to
think clearly and the depth of your understanding of problem areas.
However, try to place your research question in the context of either a current
"hot" area, or an older area that remains viable. Secondly, you need to provide a
brief but appropriate historical backdrop. Thirdly, provide the contemporary
context in which your proposed research question occupies the central stage.
Finally, identify "key players" and refer to the most relevant and representative
publications. In short, try to paint your research question in broad brushes and at
the same time bring out its significance.  
The introduction typically begins with a general statement of the problem area,
with a focus on a specific research problem, to be followed by the rational or
justification for the proposed study. The introduction generally covers the
following elements:  
1. State the research problem, which is often referred to as the purpose of
the study.  
2. Provide the context and set the stage for your research question in such a
way as to show its necessity and importance.  
3. Present the rationale of your proposed study and clearly indicate why it is
worth doing.  
4. Briefly describe the major issues and sub-problems to be addressed by
your research.  
5. Identify the key independent and dependent variables of your experiment.
Alternatively, specify the phenomenon you want to study.  
6. State your hypothesis or theory, if any. For exploratory or
phenomenological research, you may not have any hypotheses. (Please do
not confuse the hypothesis with the statistical null hypothesis.)  
7. Set the delimitation or boundaries of your proposed research in order to
provide a clear focus.  
8. Provide definitions of key concepts. (This is optional.)  
  4. Literature Review
 Sometimes the literature review is incorporated into the introduction section.
However, most professors prefer a separate section, which allows a more
thorough review of the literature.  
The literature review serves several important functions:  
1. Ensures that you are not "reinventing the wheel".  
2. Gives credits to those who have laid the groundwork for your research.  
3. Demonstrates your knowledge of the research problem.  
4. Demonstrates your understanding of the theoretical and research issues
related to your research question.  
5. Shows your ability to critically evaluate relevant literature information.  
6. Indicates your ability to integrate and synthesize the existing literature.  
7. Provides new theoretical insights or develops a new model as the
conceptual framework for your research.  
8. Convinces your reader that your proposed research will make a significant
and substantial contribution to the literature (i.e., resolving an important
theoretical issue or filling a major gap in the literature).  
Most students' literature reviews suffer from the following problems:   Lacking organization and structure   Lacking focus, unity and coherence   Being repetitive and verbose   Failing to cite influential papers   Failing to keep up with recent developments  
Failing to critically evaluate cited papers   Citing irrelevant or trivial references   Depending too much on secondary sources  
Your scholarship and research competence will be questioned if any of the above
applies to your proposal.  
There are different ways to organize your literature review. Make use of
subheadings to bring order and coherence to your review. For example, having
established the importance of your research area and its current state of
development, you may devote several subsections on related issues as:
theoretical models, measuring instruments, cross-cultural and gender differences,
etc.  
It is also helpful to keep in mind that you are telling a story to an audience. Try
to tell it in a stimulating and engaging manner. Do not bore them, because it may
lead to rejection of your worthy proposal. (Remember: Professors and scientists
are human beings too.)
5. Methods:  
The Method section is very important because it tells your Research Committee
how you plan to tackle your research problem. It will provide your work plan and
describe the activities necessary for the completion of your project.  
The guiding principle for writing the Method section is that it should contain
sufficient information for the reader to determine whether methodology is sound.
Some even argue that a good proposal should contain sufficient details for
another qualified researcher to implement the study.  
You need to demonstrate your knowledge of alternative methods and make the
case that your approach is the most appropriate and most valid way to address
your research question.  
Please note that your research question may be best answered by qualitative
research. However, since most mainstream psychologists are still biased against
qualitative research, especially the phenomenological variety, you may need to
justify your qualitative method.  
Furthermore, since there are no well-established and widely accepted canons in
qualitative analysis, your method section needs to be more elaborate than what is
required for traditional quantitative research. More importantly, the data
collection process in qualitative research has a far greater impact on the results
as compared to quantitative research. That is another reason for greater care in
describing how you will collect and analyze your data. (How to write the Method
section for qualitative research is a topic for another paper.)
For quantitative studies, the method section typically consists of the following
sections:  
1. Design -Is it a questionnaire study or a laboratory experiment? What kind
of design do you choose?  
2. Subjects or participants - Who will take part in your study ? What kind of
sampling procedure do you use?  
3. Instruments - What kind of measuring instruments or questionnaires do
you use? Why do you choose them? Are they valid and reliable?  
4. Procedure - How do you plan to carry out your study? What activities are
involved? How long does it take?  
6. Results:  
Obviously you do not have results at the proposal stage. However, you need to
have some idea about what kind of data you will be collecting, and what
statistical procedures will be used in order to answer your research question or
test you hypothesis.  
7. Discussion:  
It is important to convince your reader of the potential impact of your proposed
research. You need to communicate a sense of enthusiasm and confidence
without exaggerating the merits of your proposal. That is why you also need to
mention the limitations and weaknesses of the proposed research, which may be
justified by time and financial constraints as well as by the early developmental
stage of your research area.  
ولكم جميعا كل الود وأطيب المنى....



amara1176
موفد مشارك
موفد مشارك

ذكر عدد المساهمات : 32
نقاط : 3966
نقاط السٌّمعَة : 12
تاريخ التسجيل : 09/10/2011

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رد: الاخطاء الشائعة في كتابة خطة البحث Proposal

مُساهمة من طرف farajarkeas في الإثنين 20 يناير 2014, 3:16 am

مشكورين

_______________________________

أشهد أن لا اله الا الله وأشهد ان محمد رسول الله

لا يتواضع إلا '' الكبير '' ولا يتكبر إلا '' الحقير '' و لا تقاس العقول بالأعمار فكم صغير عقله بارع .. وكم من كبير عقله فارغ .!



من أذنب وهو يضحك دخل النار وهو يبكي

farajarkeas
عضو إداره
عضو إداره

مشرف منتدى الدراسة الأكاديمية والبحث العلـــــــــمي
مشرف منتدى الطلاب الليبيين في آســــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــيا
والســـــاحات الاوروبـية
  • وسام الإدارة


ذكر عدد المساهمات : 888
نقاط : 19337
نقاط السٌّمعَة : 127
تاريخ التسجيل : 16/04/2010

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استعرض الموضوع السابق استعرض الموضوع التالي الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة


 
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